BBC Masterclass: Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Hi, guys! Dan from BBC Learning English here. This time, we're gonna be taking a look at non-defining relative clauses and why they're awesome. Are you ready? Here we go.
嗨，大家!我是 BBC 學英文的 Dan。這一次，我們要來看非限定關係子句還有它們為什麼很棒。準備好了嗎？開始囉。
Number one: They're free. How cool is that? They're like the free toothpaste that you get given when you go to a shop and buy a toothbrush. You don't need it, but everybody likes something for free. What's even cooler is, if you don't want it, you can remove it and the main information from the sentence is the same.
Number two: You can always identify them. Unlike sneaky defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses are always marked with commas next to the noun which they describe. When being spoken, the intonation pattern of the sentence changes to show where the clause is. For example, "The pens which I left on the table were stolen." "The pens, which I left on the table, were stolen."
Number three: They are proud. Unlike shameful defining relative clauses, which can hide their relative pronoun or use "that," non-defining relative clauses always use the correct relative pronoun—"who" for people and "which" for objects. And they never omit them.
第三：非限定關係子句很驕傲。不像無恥的限定關係子句，限定關係子句可以把關係代名詞藏起來或是用 that 代替，非限定關係子句總是會用正確的關係代名詞－－人用 who 然後物用 which。它們永遠不會省略關係代名詞。
Number four: They can count. Non-defining relative clauses are able to quantify a noun, even if the main clause doesn't. They can be used with determiners such as many, some, all, a few, half, etc. And this allows us to comment on part of a group rather than all or nothing, like defining relative clauses. "The pens, many of which I left on the table, were stolen."
第四：它們可以數數。非限定關係子句可以估算一個名詞的量，即使主要子句中沒有。它們可以和像是 many(許多)、some(一些)、all(全部)、a few(幾個)、half(一半)等限定詞搭配使用。這讓我們可以就群體中的一部分作評論，而非就整體或什麼都沒有，像是限定關係子句那樣。「那些筆，我留在桌上的筆中有好幾支，被偷了。」
Number five: They care about our opinion. Non-defining relative clauses are not only able to comment on a noun within a sentence but allow us to make a comment on the whole sentence itself. This is used to communicate the speaker's opinion about the events they've just mentioned. "The pens, which I left on the table, were stolen, which surprised me."
Aren't they cool? Learn them, love them, and they'll never let you down. Non-defining relative clauses—a speaker's best friend.
註一：非限定關係子句也可稱作 non-restrictive relative clause