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「文法好簡單!及物動詞、不及物動詞怎麼分?」- Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


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Hello! And welcome to Like A Native Speaker. In this week's lesson, you're going to be learning about transitive and intransitive verbs.
哈囉!歡迎收看《Like A Native Speaker》。這禮拜的課程中,你會學到及物和不及物動詞。

Transitive and intransitive verbs?
及物和不及物動詞?

What?!
什麼東東?!

Okay...okay, relax. Those words sound complicated, sound difficult, but it's actually not that big of a deal. This is one of the fundamentals of English grammar and something that many, many students get wrong. Basically, when we talk about transitive or intransitive verbs, what we're actually talking about is objects. So, you're super smart, so you know that English is subject, verb, object. The object is generally the thing receiving the verb, receiving the action. But there are two kinds of objects: direct and indirect.
好...好,放輕鬆。那些詞聽起來很複雜、很難,但其實沒什麼了不起的。這是英文文法的基礎之一,也是一個很多很多學生不清楚的概念。基本上,在我們講及物或不及物動詞時,我們其實在討論的是受詞。所以,你超級聰明,因此你知道英文就是主詞、動詞、受詞。受詞一般就是接受動詞、接受動作的東西。但受詞有兩種:直接和間接受詞。

A direct object comes immediately after the verb. It comes directly after. "I bought a car." And an indirect object means that there is something between the verb and the object. It is not direct. "I went to the store." "The store" is the object; "went" is the verb. "To" is a preposition—it's the connector. So, what does this have to do with transitive or intransitive? Well, I'm glad you asked, voice in my head.
直接受詞直接連在動詞後面。它直接跟在後頭。「I bought a car.(我買了一台車)」間接受詞代表在動詞和受詞間有某個東西。它並非直接跟著。「I went to the store.(我去商店)」「The store(商店)」是受詞;「went(去)」是動詞。「To(到)」是介係詞--它是連接的詞。那麼,這和及物或不及物有什麼關係呢?嗯,很高興你問了,我腦袋瓜裡的聲音。

A transitive verb is a verb that is able to take a direct object after it. But an intransitive verb cannot take a direct object. Or sometimes, it doesn't need an object at all. Confused yet? It's all right! Let me give you an example. "I ran." No object necessary—that is a complete sentence. But if you wanted to add an object, you need a preposition. "I ran to the store." Compare this with a transitive verb. "I bought." That's incorrect. That's not a complete sentence.
及物動詞是在它後面能接一個直接受詞的動詞。但不及物動詞不能接一個直接受詞。或是有時候,不及物動詞根本不需要受詞。霧煞煞了沒?沒關係!讓我來舉個例子。「I ran.(我跑)」不需要任何受詞--那是句完整的句子。但如果你想加上受詞,你就需要一個介係詞。「I ran to the store.(我跑去商店)」將這和及物動詞比較。「I bought.(我買)」那是不正確的。那句並非一句完整句子。

The most common mistake I hear is students saying, "Ah, I like!" ...what? You...you...you...like what? The tricky part is that which verbs are transitive and which verbs are intransitive... A lot of it is just memorization. And...I know, I know, you hate memorization. I hate memorization. But...sometimes, that's what you have to do.
我最常聽到的一個錯誤是學生說:「Ah, I like!(啊,我喜歡!)」...什麼?你...你...你喜歡什麼?麻煩的部分是哪些動詞是及物然後哪些動詞是不及物... 這很多只是靠記憶。然後...我知道、我知道,你討厭背。我討厭背。但...有時候,那就是你必須做的事。

However, there is a guideline that can help. Usually, intransitive verbs are verbs of movement: go, run, walk. Another example of an intransitive verb is "happen." So transitive verbs require an object, and it's generally a direct object. Intransitive verbs do not require an object, and usually there's a preposition or an adverbial phrase after the verb.
不過,有一個幫得上忙的準則。通常,不及物動詞是動作動詞:go(去)、run(跑)、walk(走)。另一個不及物動詞的例子是「happen(發生)」。所以及物動詞需要受詞,而且那通常是個直接受詞。不及物動詞不需要受詞,而且通常在動詞後有一個介係詞或副詞片語。

Some verbs are the third category: bitransitive. As you can probably guess, a bitransitive verb is one that can be used in a transitive situation or an intransitive one. Often the meaning can change. As an example, "He runs to the store." It has that feeling of movement. Now, if we change it, "He runs the store," it is actually correct because "run" is a bitransitive verb. But the meaning is completely different. In case you were wondering, "He runs the store" means he manages the store, he controls the store.
有些動詞是第三種類型:可及物可不及物動詞。正如你可能猜得到的,可及物可不及物動詞是一個可以被用在及物或不及物情況下的動詞。那意思常常可能會有變化。一個例子,「He runs to the store.(他跑去商店)」這有那種動作的感覺。現在,如果我們把它換掉,「He runs the store(他經營那商店)」,這其實是對的,因為「run」是個可及物可不及物動詞。但句子意思就完全不同了。萬一你在困惑,「He runs the store」是他經營那家店、他掌管那家店的意思。

So transitive and intransitive verbs are very important, basic parts of grammar, and they're connected with how you use an object with the verb. There are three kinds: transitive, intransitive, and bitransitive. Transitive requires a direct object. Intransitive does not require an object, but if there is an object, there's usually a prepositional phrase or an adverbial phrase. And bitransitive verbs swing both ways. You can use them transitively or intransitively, but be careful because some verbs change meaning when you use transitive or intransitive.
所以及物和不及物動詞是文法中非常重要、基礎的部分,而且它們和你怎麼把受詞搭配動詞使用有關。有三種動詞:及物、不及物,還有可及物可不及物動詞。及物動詞需要一個直接受詞。不及物動詞不需要受詞,但假如有受詞的話,通常會有個介係詞片語或副詞片語。而可及物可不及物動詞兩種都可以當。你可以把它們及物或不及物地用,但要注意,因為有些動詞在你用及物或不及物時會改變意思。

Now you are masters of verbs and objects! If you have any questions, you know what to do. And as always, thank you for subscribing, and I will see you next time.
現在你們是動詞和受詞的大師了!如果你有任何問題,你知道該做什麼。老樣子,謝謝訂閱,我們下回見。

  • 「弄錯、誤解」- Get Wrong

    This is one of the fundamentals of English grammar and something that many, many students get wrong.
    這是英文文法的基礎之一,也是一個很多很多學生不清楚的概念。

  • 「和...有關」- Have To Do With

    So, what does this have to do with transitive or intransitive?
    那麼,這和及物或不及物有什麼關係呢?

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